Wednesday, May 18, 2016

What is the Best Way to Detect Moisture Trapped Within a Roof System?

There is much dissention in the market­place today on the best way to detect mois­ture trapped in a roofing system. There are many different options, both destructive and nondestructive. We are going to analyze three of the major nondestructive techniques: nu­clear, dielectric, and infrared. Nuclear and di­electric techniques both utilize a grid system. The roof is marked off in an intersecting grid, usually on 5', 10', or 20' centers. The most commonly used are 7'-10' centers. The opera­tor moves the instrument to each point and records the instrument readings at each one of the intersecting grid points. The infrared technique "photographs" 100% of the roof surface. It is important to note that the quality of the results of any of these types of analyses may vary greatly depending upon both the quality of the instruments being used and the competence of the user. We will assume that both the instruments and the operator are competent. Also note that all three of these methods generally employ the use of destructive testing in the form of core sampling to verify results.

The first method of moisture detection is the nuclear technique. The theory of this technique is quite complex, but basically a nuclear meter measures the slow reflected neutrons from a fast neutron source. Nuclear meters contain radioactive material in order to release these neutrons. When the neutrons are released from the meter, they collide with other particles within the roof. If the particle is a hydrogen atom, the neutron's speed will be reduced. Since water contains hydrogen at­oms, the amount of moisture in a roof system should be proportional to the number of "slow" neutrons reflected back from the roof system. This process is complicated by the fact that roof components may also contain hydrogen atoms, but presumably the readings should be fairly consistent for all dry roof areas, with a marked change for areas containing moisture.

There are both advantages and disad­vantages of nuclear analysis. One advantage is that the data acquisition is rather insensitive to climatic conditions, enabling this survey to be done during the day and during virtually any part of the year, as long as there is no standing water on the surface of the roof. An­other advantage is that it can be used on vir­tually all roof types. One disadvantage is that the meter contains radioactive material which requires special handling and licensing. An­other disadvantage is that data acquisition is time consuming and laborious. Also, the me­ter readings are angle sensitive and must be properly placed on the roof. The readings can also be affected by inconsistencies in the roof components. Finally, a major disadvantage is that since the nuclear meter samples about 2 square feet of roof at each grid point and most surveys are taken on a 10' x 10' grid, a nuclear moisture survey sees only about 2% of the roof. Even if the grid size is reduced to 5' x 5', the cover­age is only increased to 8% and the work is multiplied by 4.

The next method is dielectric or capacitance detection which uses a capacitance me­ter. The meter creates an alternating electrical current in the roof system below. Capacitance is the property of a substance which permits the storage of electricity when there are differences between two conductors. Capacitance is measured as a dielectric constant. The dielectric constant of a water saturated roof system will be much higher than that of a dry system (with intermediate constants for intermediate amounts of moisture).

The advantages and disadvantages of the dielectric method are very similar to the nuclear method. This applies to the climactic advantage, which is exactly the same. The advantages is that the equipment is less sophis­ticated, easier to operate, and generally less expensive than the other two methods. One disadvantage is that it is virtually impossible to determine the actual boundaries of a known anomaly. Also, due to its electrical charge opera­tion, there are numerous conditions which will pre­vent the equipment from obtaining any accurate or useful readings. Finally, the major disadvantage is that, like the nuclear method, capacitance meters sample about 2 square feet of roof at each grid point and most surveys are taken on a 10 x 10' grid. Therefore, a dielectric sur­vey sees only about 2% of the roof.

Infrared scanning, the final method of detection, senses the temperature of the sur­face of the roof. Wet insulation changes the ability of the roof system to store and con­duct thermal energy, thus causing changes in the temperature of the roof surface. With this method, 100% of the roof surface is viewed through a scanner or camera. Ar­eas with wet insulation will appear lighter than dry areas due to an increase in temperature. The data generally is recorded through digital imagery. Outlines of the wet area can also be painted on the roof surface.

The advantages of infrared surveying are many. The first advantage is that the data is generally extremely accurate if obtained by an experienced operator with appropriate equipment. The second advantage is that the data is acquired over the entire roof and not just at grid intersection points, so the entire roof surface is seen. This method tends to be less time-consuming than the other two meth­ods, offering cost advantages, particularly for large facilities. This method can also be used to identify conditions requiring remediation on exterior walls and window panels.

There are, however, disadvantages to this method. The first disadvantage is that it is highly weather dependent, with many vari­ables including surface moisture, wind speed, daytime vs. nighttime temperature, etc. The second disadvantage is that these scans gen­erally need to be performed at night, increas­ing safety issues. The readings may also be affected by interior heat sources or differences in insulation thickness. The final disadvantage is that the results are qualitative rather than quantitative, and therefore are highly depen­dent on the experience of the operator.

In conclusion, roofing experts gener­ally agree that the most reliable method of moisture detection in a roof system is us­ing an infrared survey. The disadvantages of this system can be overcome by an expe­rienced operator, enabling accurate results for 100% of the roof surface. Veri­fication procedures are recommended, including test cuts, moisture probes (Delmhorst), and use of a Tramex meter. It is impor­tant to note, however, that the results from an infrared survey are highly dependent upon many different variables, requiring the direction and interpretation of a trained expert in order to achieve usable results.

StructureScan, a division of StructureTec, performs nondestructive evaluations of facilities using infrared scanning. If you are responsible for the care and maintenance of the exterior of your facilities, contact us today to schedule your StructureScan infrared survey!

Wednesday, May 4, 2016

The Key to Maximizing the Life of Your Pavement

Parking areas, loading docks, and campus roadways have a significant effect on your facilities appearance and functionality. Deteriorating pavement areas are not only a safety concern, but a direct reflection of your organization’s image. A guest’s experience begins well before coming through your doors, so it is critical you make a positive first impression. 
Proper pavement maintenance is essential to any organization that has the responsibility for maintaining the condition of parking lots, loading docks, sidewalks, and roadways. Keeping up on pavement maintenance and restoration not only saves money, but creates a safe environment for both employees and visitors. Potholes, cracks, and eroded pavement can become a liability and an accident waiting to happen. The continuous battle of “chasing” problems and an ever increasing shortage of capital requires you to maximize the life of existing pavement. By developing a long-range pavement management program, your organization can double the life of your pavement and save thousands of dollars in capital replacement and taking a proactive approach to pavement maintenance.
The first step in developing a pavement management program is to perform a detailed condition assessment of all pavement areas. This information should be analyzed to create a prioritized maintenance schedule complete with accurate budgets that correlate with the scope of work.

Typically, properly designed pavements perform well under loads until a particular point in their life spans, at which time they deteriorate rapidly until failure. If you choose to defer maintenance and provide band-aid repairs only when required, you will find that when you are finally ready to invest in maintenance that your pavement has already gone past the point of repair, and that the base or pavement failures will soon be reflected through to the surface, resulting in wasted resources. In order to maximize the useful life of the asset, preventative maintenance should be done even when there doesn’t appear to be anything inherently wrong with the pavement.  
Experience shows for every $1 spent on preventative pavement maintenance, $6 to $14 are saved on future rehabilitation or reconstruction costs.
The biggest mistake a facilities department can make is waiting until a problem develops before addressing it. By selecting the right treatment at the right time, you can keep water from breaching the pavement surface, prevent oxidation of the asphalt or concrete, and maintain an aesthetically pleasing pavement area.
With a pavement management program in place, your facility management team will have the ability to achieve a well-maintained, high performance pavement area that will have a greater return on your investment. By designing for the load and purpose of your pavement and performing maintenance early and often, you can decrease your annual cost of ownership and enhance the life cycle of your pavement areas.
For more information, please visit our website or contact us to set up a pavement consultation.